Our ethnic groups, which each have their own language, are mostly Wamwera, Wamakonde, Wamakua, and Wayao. Nowadays everybody understands and speaks Swahili.
In this southeastern part of Tanzania, the adherents to the religion of Islam far outnumber the Christians and the few traditional religions. Being in a rural area, we have no industries whatsoever. The vast majority of our people are subsistence farmers, eking out their existence by planting maize, cassava, cashew nuts, rice and millet. Many kinds of green, red and yellow vegetables flourish below the palm trees as well as cashew nuts, mangoes, papayas, bananas and other fruits. Buffer stock of food is a problem. Various villages are making serious efforts to keep cattle, sheep and goats.
The hospital has educational and Primary Health Care projects to encourage good nutrition in the home. Throughout the year, the people have to rely on wells and rivers for their water supply. The distance from home to the source of water usually exceeds 2 km. Only 30% of the inhabitants of the Lindi Region have access to clean water. In general the water is not safe for human consumption without boiling, however, deep-rooted traditional beliefs have tempted people to use river water without boiling. This is the major cause of recurrent cholera epidemics and endemic for amoebic infection in our area . The hospital has got its own supply of safe water 30m deep underground
The most common diseases treated in the hospital clinics and among admitted patients remain similar throughout many years. There are malaria on the first place, upper respiratory tract infections, cardio-vascular disorders, intestinal infections, anemia. HIV/AIDS remain on the 8th place and tuberculosis on 9th place among admitted patients. Lindi Region has still low rate of HIV infected population, below 4%. Avarage rate for all country is 7%.
In the last years there is increase number of victims of trafic accidents especially motocycle accidents. Lack of proper equipment and expertise how to treat fractures among medical personel in all South East part of Tanzania create real problem. Maternal mortality remain high and despite of creation new District Hospitals (Ruangwa and Tandahimba) there is no signs of improvement. Side effect of poor obstetrical care are still existing woman with obstetrical fistulas (popular called VVF). Nyangao Hospital is one of these rare hospitals in the country which is providing full range of surgical treatment for woman with VVF. There is well organized project called Women Dignity Project on national scale organizing and financing treatment for those patients and Nyangao Hospital is participating on it.
The southern zone has the worst performance, with underfive mortality rates that are 40% to 50% above the other parts of the country.